Year 4-6 Learning Continuity

9th September: TPSA 9 Sentences

This is the ninth session of the Teacher and Parent Support and Awareness programs for Years, 4-6.

Focus: Sentences


  • Madam Lovelyn Pitawao
  • Madam Beverly Hanirara
  • Madam Marilyn Tapidaka
  • Mrs Christina Rore (MEHRD)


In previous sessions we looked at six genres or types of text types and their structures:

Text Types Purpose Structure Language Features
Recount retells event or experience in the past Title

Orientation: who, where, when

Sequence of Events: what happened

Response: how it made me feel

Sentences: Simple sentences

Nouns: Proper nouns for names, Pronouns-he, she, his her, we, us, they, our

Verbs: Past tense verbs-went, saw, had, was, were

Time connectives: First, then, next, after

Narrative tells a story and entertains the read or listener Title

Orientation: who, what, when

Sequence of Events: Complication

Resolution – how the problem is solved

Sentences: Simple sentences

Noun: Nouns

Pronouns: it, they

Verbs: Present tense verbs: is, are, has, have

Exposition is to inform, describe or define his or her subject to reader Title


Statement of Position:

  • Tells the reader what the argument is about
  • May include background information

Body/ Sequence of events

What happened – Use connective words (First, Then, Next, Later or firstly, secondly, thirdly, etc……..)


This section includes:

  • evidence or ideas,
  • to justify the position taken,
  • include supporting evidence  such as quotes or statistics. 

Usually has more than one point and includes examples linked directly to the argument

Conclusion/summing up:

Restates argument in the light of the evidence given.

May call for action.

Characters: Usually generalised (e.g. people, young people, the government, the church) not about specific people or characters.

Verbs: Variety of verb types are used including persuasive verbs (such as; should, ought to, must)

Tense: Varies, usually present tense, but the tense changes with the argument. Historical background may be given in the past tense (This is how things were before the coup) or a call to action may be presented in the future tense (“Go out and tell  your friends………).

Language Features:

  • Technical vocabulary reflecting to the issue, as ‘ Marovo’s marine ecosystem’
  • Conjunctions are often associated with logical reasoning such as: therefore, because, thus.
  • Strong language is often used to persuade and convince (such as: must, should, ought.
  • Uses arguments, facts and evidence to convince.
  • Reported Speech and quotes are common, for example; “A member of the public stated that …….”, “Residents of Honiara say that ……..”
  • Language which evaluates such as “It is important that ……………”. “It is necessary to ……….” People must……….”

Style: Persuasive and strong. The voice or opinion of the author can be clearly identified.

Report Writing to present information about something Title

Introduction/ Orientation: who & what

May include a definition and a statement of what the report is about

Body/ Sequence of events:

What happened

Use connective words

(First, Then, Next, Later or firstly, secondly, thirdly, etc……..)

Factual Information:

Linked paragraphs which each contain some facts and information

Conclusion/summing up:

Concluding statement

To summarise the findings and round off the report

Characters: Usually about things not people (e.g. cats, volcanoes)

Verbs: Linking verbs showing relationships, such as: belongs to, has, contains, are, etc.

Tense: Scientific reports are usually written in present tense, but historical reports are more likely to be past tense.

Language Features:

  • Language is descriptive, but factual and precise (or accurate) rather than lively or imaginative.
  • Likely to contain technical vocabulary and information such as ‘Dolphins are marine mammals’, or ‘The weather is monitored by meteorologists’.
  • Structural features include paragraphing, sub headings, bullet points, diagrams or pictures to clarify the text.

Style: Relatively formal and objective, first person pronouns and personal response are not usually appropriate. The voice of the author is weak.

Explanation tells your audience how something works or why something happens. To explain how or why something occurs TitleGeneral Introduction:

(How & Why)

A statement to tell the reader what is to be explained

Sequenced Explanation:

Linked sentences or paragraphs setting out the explanation in a logical way

Conclusion Statement:

This may be a summary of how this information can be used or a general statement about the importance of what has been explained

Characters – often about things, but can be about people. Usually people in general not individuals, such as elderly people or adults

Tense – usually timeless, written in simple tense

Verbs – mostly action verbs such as erupt, revolve, opens

Language features – language of reasoning or cause and effect is often used such as if/then, while, as, after

Technical Vocabulary

– is often used, such as the digestive system, the electrical circuit

– may include diagrams or flow charts to clarify the explanation

Style – Scientific and factual: No unnecessary description of detail

Procedure/ Procedural explains or helps us how to make or use something. To instruct someone on how to do something Title


List what will be needed to the job


Explains the steps to follow to reach the goal usually laid out as a  numbered list

Numbers and diagrams or pictures are often used to make the instructions clearer

Characters – Generalised, (not people). The text applies to a class of things such as the ‘utensils’ or specific things such as ‘the eggs’. Things are described in detail such as ‘a serrated knife’, ‘a six inch nail’ or ‘100 grams of flour’

Verbs – simple present tense action verbs, such as beat, hold, twist, mix, glue, tie.

Language Features

  • Short clear sentences, often starting with an action verb, (eg. ‘chop meat into small pieces’)
  • Linking words to do with the sequence of steps, such as first, next, finally.
  • Adverbs which add detail to the instruction such lightly, firmly, vigorously, gently
  • Adjectives used to describe materials precisely, such as a sharp knife, strong glue

Style – Direct, informative and precise

And the 5 steps are:

Step 1: Planning Stage
  • think & discuss (individually, pair & group)
  • use the question leaders (who, where, when, what, why & how)
  • here they can either draw pictures or draw a concept map
Step 2: 1st Draft
  • write out their explanation quickly
  • you can have them read out after
Step 3: Revise
  • check for meaning
  • ask these questions: “Does it make sense?” Or “Does it sound strong?”
  • this is when they can add adjectives and adverbs to make their story interesting
Step 4: Edit
  • fix it up
  • when to check for spelling, punctuation (capital letters, full stop, comma, question mark, speech mark) and grammar (tenses of verbs)
Step 5: Publish
  • display work in the classroom
  • read to an audience
  • here they celebrate their work

Teachers and parents by now you should know the six (6) different types of genres or types of writings. Their structures and language features. Together with the steps in the writing process that our students or children need to know in order to acquire the basic understanding of what involves in writing. Here they will be enhanced to use the steps in the writing process in order to develop their writing skills which will surely prepare them to be able to write confidently and competently as they progress to secondary education.

Today’s Session:

In today’s session we will look at the types of sentences that learners need to know and as teachers and parents how can we support them.

To begin let’s answer this question: What is a sentence?

A sentence is a group of words that tell a complete thought or idea.

For example: Anna ate an apple.

But it is important to consider the next question: What is the difference between a sentence, a clause and a phrase?

A clause is a group of words in a sentence which contains a subject and a verb.

For example: The boy is playing.

In the above simple sentence, boy is the subject and playing is the verb so the part boy is playing is a clause because it has both subject and verb.

A clause might also contain an object along with the subject which makes it stand alone as a complete sentence. One of the easiest way to distinguish between a clause and a phrase is that a clause is a set of words that makes complete sense and does not require any additional helping words to complete it.

For example: Sara smiled.

In the above example; you can see that this two word simple sentence make complete sense and is understandable. It has both a subject and a verb so it is a clause.

A single sentence might have one clause like in the above examples, but there can exist a sentence which contains more than one clause in it.

Example: I looked everywhere but the cat was gone.

Consider the above example; you will notice that this two word simple sentence make complete sense and is understandable. It consists of a subject and a verb thus it is a clause.


A single sentence might have one clause like in the above examples, but there can exist a sentence which contains more than one clause in it.

Example: I looked everywhere but the cat was gone.

The above sentence contains two clauses I looked everywhere and cat was gone. In the same manner, longer and more complicated sentences might also contain more than two clauses.

-A phrase is a group of words in a sentence that does not contain a subject and a verb. In other words, in a sentence, one part with subject and verb is a clause while the rest of it  without those two parts of speeches is a phrase

For example; On the wall, in the water, over the horizon

All of the above examples are parts of different sentences which are void of a subject and verb thus they are classified as phrases.

A clause and a phrase may co-exist in a sentence.

 For example; He is playing in the field.

He is playing is a clause (subject + verb) and in the field is a phase.

Another easy way of remembering the difference between a phrase and a clause is that a phrase does not make complete sense on its own and requires the help of other words to make it a complete sentence.

Take the above example, if you find in the field written somewhere alone, you will be very confused about its meaning and will be unable to understand it. Thus, a phrase is a set of words that does not make up a complete and understandable sentence by its own.


Tips for parents to support children at home

  • Be a role model for learning
  • Check your child/children’s work daily.
  • Investigate weakness and assist to improve your child/children’s work.
  • Identify which subject and keep a progressive record.
  • Contact your child/children’s teacher to further discuss supplementary activities.
  • Promote Literacy by reading to your child.
  • Set a time aside to do independent or pair reading for at least 15-20 minutes per day.
  • Read to your child.
  • Encourage your child to read to you.

Thank You teachers, children and parents for taking your time to be part of this session today             


Key Messages

  • MEHRD and NGO around the country would like to work together to support our children and young people with their education in communities.
  • We are putting in place a project to support learners whether schools are open or not (in relation to Covid–19).
  • The project aims to reinforce learning through traditional knowledge, values and customs. To reintroduce story – telling of custom stories through media.
  • As NGOs, FBOs, community committees, etc. If you would like to know more about this project and possibly support activities in your community please get in touch.
  • Phone numbers 7402612 & 8972620.
  • Our website
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  • The radio program was very useful, it would be also best if it is in another multimedia form.

  • If I may be provided with all the above eLearning materials. I tried my very best to download all the materials, but won’t able to do so. since others did not have any download links.

  • Can we get all the teacher and student guides upload on this website. This will be very helpful for kids doing home school during this pandemic

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