Year 10-12 Learning Continuity Packages

24th July, 2020: Animal Production

Student Learning Continuity Program
24th July, 2020: Animal Production
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 AGRICULTURE PROGRAM FOR SENIOR SECONDARY (30 Minutes)

 Introduction

Greetings and welcome back to our second session. Again it’s me Madam Cathy Izod from KGVI NSS and Lenior Taro from the Ministry of Agriculture and we are both happy to be with you senior learners, parents, Guardians and all listeners throughout our Lovely Solomon Islands.

Recap – Re-emphasize the importance of any plant production which Cocoa is an example of and the importance of Establishment to Marketing of any plant or animal production.

For our session today we are going to talk about animal production and what is required to successfully produce animal and animal by products for human consumption/use.

  1. Establishment
  1. site selection
  2. breed selection
  3. Fencing
  4. pasture establishment

 

  1. Site selection –When raising animals it is of utmost importance that you consider the site that you are going to keep your animals.When choosing a site consider the following factors
    • proximity to road or transport access to ease transportation of feed and animals.
    • proximity to water source
    • ease of access (flat, hilly, steep)
  2. Breed selection– it is important to select breeds of animal for your farm to suit your needs or fulfil the purpose of your farm,
    • select breed according to use. Certain breeds of cattle are raised for milk only or for meat only or for both
    • if you want to raise cattle for dairy then choose dairy breeds such as Holstein.
    • beef (meat only) breeds include Angus, Hereford, Brahman.
    • dual purpose breeds include Milking shorthorn, Red polled.
    • it is also important to select breeds of cattle that are suited to the type of climate we have in the Solomon (tropical climate)
  3. Fencing
    • when raising animals fencing is also important to keep out predators and keep animals in
  4. Pasture establishment
    • grasses and legumes can be integrated to improve nutrient content of pasture
    • these are established before bringing animals into the pasture
    • pasture can be divided into different sections
    • this way farmer can practice rotational grazing where animals move from an area to another allowing an area to recover before coming back to it

 

  1. Husbandry and management of cattle:
  1. Calving/Weaning
  2. Feeding
  3. Disease Control
  4. Branding
  5. Record Keeping

 

  1. Calving/Weaning
    • Calving is when a cow gives birth, and it comes after 9 months of gestation.
    • At 3-4 months the calf is weaned. Weaning is the removal of the calf from the cow to allow the cow to regain its weight and ready to mate again.
  2. Feeding
    • Animal nutrition is very important as it is a major contributing factor to determines the growth of animals
    • Poor feeding will result in weight loss and animals will be susceptible to diseases
    • Proper feeding will give healthy animals and healthy animals will give good market price.
  3. Disease control
    • It is important that diseases affecting cattle are controlled as they can affect production. Parasites cause poor animal weight gain, reduces feed conversion, weight loss, increased susceptibility to disease and death
    • Common Cattle diseases include: Parasites, Mastitis, Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, Tuberculosis.
    • Parasites (internal and external) e.g round worms, tick and flies
    • External parasites can also damage meat, spread disease, cause irritation and stress
    • Brucellosis is a common disease caused by bacteria which results in reproductive failure.
      • If affecting male-causes infection of reproductive tract
      • In females: results in abortion
    • To prevent Brucellosis:
      • afterbirths should be handled and disposed of properly to avoid spreading the disease
      • immunization of herds/flock
      • eliminate infected herd/flock or individuals with disease
    • Note that control measures can include:
      • Internal Parasites – can be controlled by de-worming or drenching
      • External parasite – are controlled by use of insecticides (which are poured on or taken orally)
  4. BRANDING
    • Branding is purposely for identification of animals. It is practised to help farmers keep proper records of their animals. Remember from our session last week-record keeping is very important as it helps the farmer to make decisions. It is done by tattooing, paint, tagging or ear-notching
  5. RECORD KEEPING
    • Very important practice so often neglected.
    • Records give a history of the farm and help farmer to make important decisions about the farm
    • Financial record and physical records

It is important to note that different classes of animals have other husbandry practices, e.g. a cow in its gestation period or a young calf will have certain husbandry practices such as special feeding regimes.

 

  1. Processing
  •  If you are raising cattle for meat, then the slaughtering process takes place before marketing
  • Slaughtering involved three important stages: pre slaughter handling, stunning and slaughtering
  • If you are raising animals for milk production, then milking procedures are involved.
  • The important thing is that proper procedures are followed at each stage to ensure you have a quality product for the market

Note:

  1. Pre slaughter handling is important as how we handle the animal before slaughter can have an effect on the quality of the meat produced.
    • Animal starved 12-24hrs before slaughter but given water.
    • Pre slaughter stress can be reduced by avoid overcrowding the animals
  2. Stunning- stunning is the act of rendering the animal temporarily unconscious for easy bleeding. Different methods include:
    • electrical stunning
    • gas stunning
    • mechanical: use of captive-bolt pistol
  3. Slaughtering
    • after stunning the animal is suspended by a hind limb to allow animals to bleed out
    • carcass is skinned and eviscerated
    • carcass is placed in cooler before fabricating into meat cuts.

 

  1. Marketing

In the Solomon Islands, many farmers sell their animals live to interested buyers. Those living around town are lucky enough to slaughter their animals and sell them to restaurants, hotels or at the local market.

 

Conclusion

Thank you once again good students, parents, teachers and who ever listening out there. I hope you have learned something from our presentation.

Appreciate the MEHRD for this timely opportunity to present these lessons on Crop production last week and Animal production today.  Once again thank you from me Lenior and Cathy.

Questions/ REVISION/ Re-cap

1.What is stunning?

  1. A process by which an animal is rendered to be unconscious or immobile.

2. Name three methods of stunning:

  1. Gas stunning
  2. Electrical stunning
  3. Mechanical stunning-captive bolt pistol

3. Name two type of records that are kept in a farm:

  1. Financial records
  2. Physical records

 

Thank you very much because today is our last radio session we would like to thank all listeners who have sat in for our two sessions and we would like to wish all our good students of Solomon Islands to continue learning as much as you can whilst you are in school and for our Agriculture students…

LEARNING ALL THE CONCEPTS IN AGRCULTURE SHOULD MAKE YOU LEARN TO ABIDE TO IT BY PRACTICING AS MUCH AS WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT

AGAIN FROM US THANK YOU VERY MUCH…

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Comments

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    Could the learning contents suppose to appear on the final national assessment, 2020?

    • Thank you for your comment. A MEHRD officer will be in contact with you via email to help you with your specific questions.

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